Friday, August 21, 2020

Socialist Market Economic System of China

Presentation Socialism with Chinese highlights varies from the communism that rose based on created Capitalism that was expected by Marx and Engels. The two concentrated on communism that advanced from the Soviet Model and from the ‘triumphal stage† communism in past China.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on Socialist Market Economic System of China explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The propensity for communism with Chinese Characteristic is engaged in its propensity in verifiable start, curious improvement framework, and impossible to miss double relationship. Highlights or the trait of communism was a viewpoint that was grasped by Deng Xiaoping. It is under the umbrella of setting up communism with Chinese Characteristic that communism improves unimaginable dynamism and essentialness in China. In this regard, this paper will consequently briefly talk about the financial arrangement of communist market economy in China, its highli ghts, and the degree of its free enterprise. Communism with Chinese Characteristic According to the previous history, communism with Chinese Characteristic was a viewpoint that created in a semi-pilgrim and semi-medieval society. Maxist Classical creators affirm that, the start of advancement of communist society is the improvement of Capitalism. Having known this, China is still in progress on the communist street on the foundation of a semi-pilgrim and semi-primitive society. In this regard, the point of view that China attempts is dominatingly not quite the same as what Maxism trusts in. It is the huge distinction among Maxism and China as a nation that outcomes to Socialism obtaining common highlights of the immature nations (Dillon 63). At the start, the premise on which Chinese Socialism was sprout is particular from the lattice which gestates communism as passed on by its authors. The herald of Chinese Socialism is a shy semi-pioneer and semi-medieval society as a substitute of created free enterprise society (Beck and Levine 428). Also, communism detailed based on a regressive economy culture in the Chinese Society needs to basically experience a progress period from the awkward to the equipped. A capable communism for this situation might be thought to maintain a superior and unrivaled situation than free enterprise itself; generally, it is a communism that is expected by Marx.Advertising Looking for exposition on asian? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the improvement phase of the general public, and in understanding a total progress, it needs to experience a procedure from the clumsy to capable change. This is an encounter that takes a genuinely long change period, or as it were this is the essential stage (Chen 466). The third component is that Socialism that rises up out of a retrogressive economy and culture will experience a great deal of challenges and issues. In its improvement stag e at the creation point, Socialism has held up evolved industrialist nations insufficiently. Because of this reality and furthermore under the communist foundation, China has a commitment to satisfy the obligations of industrialization, commercialization, socialization, and modernization, which different nations have had the option to satisfy through free enterprise and improved the very much created creation power that communism ought to have (Johnson et al. 141). Along these lines, we can discover that communism that advances based on in reverse economy and culture is strange. It differs from communism that is alluded to by Marx and Engels at a save of a time of sound created free enterprise. The two people rise up out of various foundations, and they speak to contrasts of value or formative level. They likewise present contrasts of value between them. As a result of this, Chinese Socialism and communism that is spoken to by the two are unquestionably not of a similar level. In a monetary example viewpoint, communism with Chinese Characteristic is a sort of communism that joins open proprietorship and unmistakable economy. In a communist advancement history, the belief system created by setting up open possession against the item economy has been in presence for an extensive stretch of time. In any case, the idea has settled that sheer arranged economy will keep down the advancement of the creation power. Since building up open possession against the item economy may keep down the advancement of the creation ability, subsequent to setting up the communist open proprietorship, it becomes dubious the sort of financial framework that should be developed to speed the improvement of the creation capacity (Wu and Zhao 311).Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Socialist Market Economic System of China explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More To effectively manage the verifiable inquiry on communism when during the time spent rehearsing of the change of China, the Chinese society stressed on progress of the street and recognized market framework. Certainly, the most significant highlights of communist market economy in China lay on its tendency on the predominance of open proprietorship and pre-prominence of the market economy. The training, since its improvement has guaranteed that combining open proprietorship and market economy and accepting the communist as an essential option for release and advancement of efficiency inside China (Alesina 30).. Besides, it additionally turns into an unavoidable decision that is intended to bring to understanding a steady social equity to the Chinese society. In any case, the converging of the two angles (open proprietorship and market economy) doesn't simply imply that there are no differences, not logical inconsistencies that coincide between the two. The majority of the issues that are seen in the contemporary China are as the consequence of the contentions between them. Th ere is consequently a need to manage the contentions in a right and legitimate way. Since these angles can't be dispensed with from either the social economy or the market economy, the central rule that should be completed in settling the issues is to manage those contentions. The guideline that should be completed ought to be started utilizing two angles: one of the viewpoints is that, China should harbor all the available resources to alter open proprietorship and empower it to be in arrangement with the rule necessities of the market economy (Wu and Zhao 315). The other viewpoint is that China ought to have the option to control the market economy and cause it to adjust to the pith of open proprietorship. As it were, the two angles ought to be good to one another, in such a case that there are inconsistencies between the two, settling the debate ought to be to upgrade harmony between the two. Despite what might be expected, the two angles ought to be left to successfully adjust, accommodate, and collaborate on a common premise (Walder 965). More or less, the solid bond among communism and private enterprise is an essential perspective in the outer relationship that communist countries or social orders face being developed and construction.Advertising Searching for paper on asian? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More The main issue that is difficult to maintain a strategic distance from in the social development is the taking care of and managing the free enterprise relationship. Taking into account that China has just cleared a road for both communism and free enterprise, this has along these lines gotten one of the particular highlights of Socialism with Chinese trademark (Alesina 35). The Extent to which China works Capitalist System China is considered to work on a communist market economy framework. In such manner, very few experts or studies have unequivocally centered around the private enterprise part of China. The accomplished dynamic and huge financial changes trademark in China have little been connected to any industrialist progress in this nation. Clarifying the amount China is ending up being an entrepreneur economy depends on how much the term private enterprise is comprehended in this specific nation. Industrialist economies are viewed as misnomer for the Chinese economy and polit ical portfolio. This is on the grounds that entrepreneur economies put a lot of exertion on the reasons for capital, well beyond the belief system of establishments (Gamer 117). Creation Capitalist financial framework is viewed as a social framework that by more noteworthy degree permits the minority to be the proprietors of the methods for creation. The detriment of this procedure is that most of the populace might be left to endure exploitative conditions. Essential parts of the entrepreneur framework is that market powers in the framework are transcendence and the private claimed endeavors are significant in tending to financial issues in the economy. Private proprietors of the endeavors own the methods for creation in China too (Gamer 129). In such manner, China is gradually going to be an entrepreneur economy coming about because of creation forms. Originations of Change Transformation of China towards being an industrialist society has been fractional and is therefore deficien t with regards to profundity as far as examination. In any case, dynamic changes in the Chinese economy have been activated by the part of free enterprise. The current financial framework in China is seen as a venturing stone towards accomplishment of free enterprise. Free enterprise ought to be absolutely explanatory in China to consider the framework completely operational in the nation (Dillon 242). Both the positive and negative characteristics of the industrialist framework should be placed into thought in the investigation of the framework. This framework however isn't completely coordinated into the activity capacity of China’s economy, yet it is gradually picking up energy. Asian Capitalism Asian nations have reliably embraced free enterprise into their economies and China is falling into a similar way. This follows the way that China’s neighbors are also its

Monday, July 13, 2020

12 Nifty Things I Learned from Drawn Quarterly #25

12 Nifty Things I Learned from Drawn Quarterly #25 I love Drawn  Quarterly. They are my go-to comics publisher, because even if I dont love every single comic they produce, every single one is top quality and I have learned something about comics from them all. And because I will be learning from DQ forever and ever, I was excited to get my copy of  Drawn Quarterly: Twenty-Five Years of Contemporary Cartooning, Comics, and Graphic Novels, a celebration of the publishers quarter century in the comics business. This book is a staggering 800 pages of essays and comics from Margaret Atwood, Adrian Tomine, Chester Brown, Heather ONeill, Chris Ware, Kate Beaton, and on and on and on. Its a history of the press and a collection of comics by a ton of contemporary masters. Its a magical gift for all comics fans, and you should totally get your paws on it ASAP. In the meantime, I thought Id share 12  facts I learned from working my way through 800 pages of comics gold. Drawn Quarterly was a comics magazine first: #1 arrived in comics shops in April 1990. That first issue included an essay from founder Chris Oliveros that laid out the vision for D+Q, including a critique of the private boys club of comics and an expressly feminist intention. The first solo artist D+Q published was Julie Doucet (Dirty Plotte #1), followed by Seth (Palookaville #1), Chester Brown (Yummy Fur #25), and Joe Matt (Peepshow #1). D+Q attended its first American comics convention, San Diego Comic-Con in 1994. That was also the year Chester Brown published  I Never Liked You. Chester Browns early work includes comic versions of the Gospels. Oliveros has tried for years to publish them, but Brown always declines. D+Q was run out of Chris Oliveros (and partner Marina Lesenko)s apartment until May 2001. Many artists reminisce about visiting the cramped office and tripping over comics and a very happy child. When Peggy Burns applied to work at D+Q as a publicist in 2003, Chris Oliveros responded by saying, I cant in good conscience hire you, because he knew he couldnt pay Burns what she was making at her DC Comics job, and because she would have to move to Montreal, and because he didnt know if the press would survive. But he hired her anyway, and she has been instrumental in shaping the direction for the last decade. In 2003, D+Q sent out their  Manifesto to all booksellers, including advice on how booksellers could present and sell  comics more effectively. They were on the vanguard of helping more readers find their way to comics outside the big-2. The July 11, 2004 issue of the  New York Times Magazine featured a cover by Chester Brown having a very meta conversation about what comics are. Lynda Barry credits D+Q with resuscitating her career after a slump in the mid-2000s, which is amazing when you consider how the publication of  What It Is has transformed so many classrooms. Buried in Peggy Burns essay is word that Chris Oliveros is stepping down as publisher of D+Q; Burns will be taking over. The company is obviously in excellent hands, and maybe Oliveros will be able to get back to his own cartooning now that hes not running the press. D+Qs commitment to diversity and equality in comics production and promotion has never wavered, and this collection shows the range of comics that commitment can produce. Other comics folks take note! Sign up to The Stack to receive  Book Riot Comic's best posts, picked for you. Thank you for signing up! Keep an eye on your inbox.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

A New Leader At The Ceo - 799 Words

As Satya Nadella takes over the position that Mr. Ballmer once endured, his spirit took off with great confidence concerning his new role at the company (Microsoft, 2014). The next decade is likely to reveal the level of success his abilities bring to the future of the company and his own status as leader. That successor would enter a new period of change at the company filled with competitive challenges in the marketplace. As Satya Nadella takes over the position that Mr. Ballmer once endured, his spirit took off with great confidence concerning his new role at the company (Microsoft, 2014). The next decade is likely to reveal the level of success his abilities bring to the future of the company and his own status as leader. The Corporate Giant in Focus Today Just over a few decades with Steve Ballmer, Microsoft has a new corporate leader at the helm. As Satya Nadella takes over the position that Mr. Ballmer once endured, his spirit took off with great confidence concerning his new role at the company (Microsoft, 2014). The next decade is likely to reveal the level of success his abilities bring to the future of the company and his own status as leader. Satya Nadella is Chief Executive Officer of Microsoft. Before being named CEO in February 2014, Nadella held leadership roles in both enterprise and consumer businesses across the company (Microsoft, n.d., para. 1). The primary intention is to maintain a solid footing that will benefit the company while producingShow MoreRelatedLeadership and Power Essay1236 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ 1. What role have referent power and expert power played in leadership at Intel? Which Intel CEOs seen to have inclined toward job-countered leader behavior? Toward employee-centered leader behavior? Toward initiation-structure behavior? Toward consideration behavior? Referent power comes from being trusted and respected. It based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma. (Griffin, 549) Expert power comes from one’s experiences, skills or knowledge. (Griffin, 549) Both powers playedRead MoreEthics and Ceo Pay1403 Words   |  6 PagesAND ETHICS OF CEO PAY Leadership and Ethics of CEO Pay Chief Executive Officer pay in the United States has risen dramatically. In the past three decades the salary of a CEO has risen significantly beyond what can be explained by variables such as firm, size, performance, and industry classification (Bebchuk Grinstein, 2005). According to research, the CEO pay at the nation’s top 500 largest companies averages about $10.9 million a year. The CEOs are also receivingRead MoreBook Review: What the Best CEOs Know1098 Words   |  5 PagesBook Review: What the Best CEOs Know Michael R. 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Strategy is sets of actions that are needed to be performed in order for change to occur that will leadRead MoreA Successful And Societally Beneficial Healthcare Organization1131 Words   |  5 Pagessocietally beneficial healthcare organization must have a leader who has a sense of right and wrong, exhibits restraint, dispenses wisdom, and is a visionary that guides the organization to reach its maximum potential. The role of a successful leader is dependent upon employees that embrace the organization’s culture, mission, and direction. An effective leader rallies employee support and allegiance to the organization’s cause. An influential leader can elicit employee positivity and dedication, and hasRead MoreLeadership Analysis : Toms A Shoe Company1570 Words   |  7 Pageswill then design a leadership development plan around this position and company as if a new hire were to be taking over the position. 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This will be achieved by detailing howRead MoreLeadership Styles Of A Ceo1275 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction This paper examines the leadership styles of a CEO and a Vice President in a successful mid-sized company. Its main objectives are to identify the individuals’ leadership approaches, evaluate the effects of their leadership styles on the performance of employees, offer actionable recommendations for improving their leadership effectiveness, and conclude with brief remarks. Analysis of Vice President Leadership Style The following is a list of accusations lobbed against the VP, whatRead MoreAnalysis Of Mindy Grossman s An Emotionally Intelligent Leader1545 Words   |  7 PagesMindy Grossman: An Emotionally Intelligent Leader Emotional intelligence is a phrase used in the business world to explain one’s competency in displaying and handling one’s own emotions as well as the emotions of others around him or her. In his book, Working With Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman explains the importance of Emotional Intelligence and how it is more imperative for one to have high Emotional Intelligence rather than a high IQ. This is because, no matter how talented someone mayRead MoreA Good Example Of Stakeholder Management1725 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscipline that successful people use to win support from others. Good leaders are disciplined in understanding all the stakeholders and this has a direct benefit on the organizations bottom-line. It takes a high level of engagement on the leaders’ part in order to make and maintain connects with internal and external stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a case study on Western National Insurance and how the new CEO used stakeho lder engagement to turn the company around. This case study

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Technology And The Construction Industry Essay - 1423 Words

Abstract The construction industry has been around since the beginning of civilization and since that time people have continually tried to find better ways to build. The speed with which the construction industry moves is unlike any other. Things are done very differently than they were 20 years ago, and things will likely be done in a new way 10 years from now. The vast history and seemingly exponential growth of the industry means people must find innovative ways to gain an advantage. Drone technology has expanded in recent years from military innovations to civilian applications, and while it may not appear personal drones provide much benefit to the construction industry, their limitless applications yield innumerous opportunities on a jobsite. This paper explores some of the many uses a drone can have to advance the construction industry, as well as the liabilities which also come with this new technology. This paper will focus on the areas of efficiency, safety and security; how drone uses can make jobsites run smoother and safer, while also recognizing how drones will add the long list of concerns contractors face on a daily basis. Drone Applications and Liabilities On Construction Jobsites In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), or drones, have transitioned from primarily military applications to use in the private sector; being used to film movies, delivering packages for Amazon, and even personal entertainment. Because of the advancement in droneShow MoreRelatedMobile Technology And The Construction Industry976 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Mobile technology is transforming the Construction industry in a huge manner. In recent years there has been a lot of improvement in mobile technology. The most commonly used devices in the construction industry are smartphones. Smart phones nowadays are more powerful than the laptops which we had five years ago. 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Class X †Democratic Politics Book Free Essays

string(29) " to his continuing in power\." This book is about democracy. In this first chapter we see how democracy has expanded during the last hundred years to more and more countries in the world. More than half of the independent countries in the world today are democracies. We will write a custom essay sample on Class X – Democratic Politics Book or any similar topic only for you Order Now The expansion of democracy has not been smooth and straight. It has seen several ups and downs in different countries. It still remains an unstable and uncertain achievement. This chapter begins with different stories on the making and unmaking of democracy from different parts of the world. These stories are meant to give a sense of what it means to experience democracy and its absence. We present the pattern of the spread of democracy first with a series of maps and then with a short history. The focus in this chapter is on democracy within a country. But towards the end of the chapter, we take a look at democracy or its absence in the relations among different countries. We examine the working of some international organisations. This allows us to ask a big question: are we moving towards democracy at the global level? 2 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS President Salvador Allende (wearing a helmet) and his security guards in front of La Moneda, Chile’s Presidential Palace, on 11 September 1973, hours before his death. What do you read on everyone’s face in this photograph? EMOCRAC ACY 1. 1 TWO TALES OF DEMOCRACY â€Å"Workers of my homeland! I have faith in Chile and its future. Chileans will overcome this dark and bitter moment when treason became dominant. You must never forget that, sooner rather than later, the grand avenues will be opened where free men will march on to build a better society. Long live Chile! Long live the people! Long live the workers! These are my last words and I have certainty that my sacrifice will not be in vain; I have certainty that, at the least, I will be a moral lesson to castigate felony, cowardice, and treason. † These are some extracts from the last speech of Salvador Allende (pronounced Ayen-they). He was then the President of Chile, a country in South America. The speech was given on the morning of 11 September 1973, the day his government was overthrown by the military. Allende was the founder EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY leader of the Socialist Party of Chile and led the Popular Unity coalition to victory in the presidential election in 1970. After being elected the President, Allende had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers. These included reform of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of land to the landless farmers. He was opposed to foreign companies taking away natural resources like copper from the country. The landlords, the rich and the Church opposed his policies. Some other political parties in Chile also opposed his government. Why did President Allende address himself mainly to ‘workers’? Why were the rich unhappy with him? M ilitary Coup of 1973 ilitary Coup On the morning of 11 September 1973, the military took over the seaport. The Defence Minister was arrested by the military when he arrived at his office. The military 3 IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD  ©La Nacion commanders asked the President to resign. Allende refused to resign or leave the country. But realising the danger to the country and to his life, he addressed the people on the radio, part of which we read in the beginning. Then the military surrounded the President’s house and started bombing it. President Allende died in the military attack. This was the sacrifice he was talking about in his last speech. A government elected by people was overthrown by the military through conspiracy and violence. What took place in Chile on 11 September 1973 was a military coup. General Augusto Pinochet (pronounced Pinoshe), an Army general, led the coup. The government of the United States of America was unhappy with Allende’s rule and is known to have supported and funded activities that led to the coup. Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled it for the next 17 years. From a government that was elected by the people, the power shifted to the military officers. They could do as they wished and no one could question them. Thus a military dictatorship was established in Chile. Pinochet’s government tortured and killed several of those who supported Allende and those who wanted democracy to be restored. These included General Alberto Bachelet of the Chilean Air Force and many other officers who refused to join the coup. General Bachelet’s wife and daughter were put in prison and tortured. More than 3,000 people were killed by the military. Many more were reported ‘missing’. No one knows what happened to them. Did the army have any legal right to arrest the defence minister of the country? Should the army have the power to arrest any citizen? A C T I V I T Y Locate and shade Chile on the map. Which state in our country has a shape similar to Chile? Follow the newspaper for one month and collect news items related to any country in Latin America. Did you find the news coverge adequate. President Michelle Bachelet addressing her supporters after her victory in the presidential election in January 2006. From this photograph do you notice any difference between an election rally in Chile and in India?  ©La Nacion, Chile 4 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS Lech Walesa Poland is famous for its poster art. Most of the posters of Solidarity carried this special way of writing ‘Solidarnosc’. Can you find similar examples of poster art or wall writing in Indian politics? sto ra Democr cy emocra R esto ra tion of Democra cy Pinochet’s military dictatorship came to an end after he decided to hold a referendum in 1988. He felt confident that in this referendum, the people would say ‘yes’ to his continuing in power. You read "Class X – Democratic Politics Book" in category "Essay examples" But th e people of Chile had not forgotten their democratic traditions. Their vote was a decisive ‘no’ to Pinochet. This led to Pinochet losing first his political and then his military powers. The hope Allende expressed in his last address was realised: felony, cowardice and treason were finally punished. Political freedom was restored. Since then Chile has held four presidential elections in which different political parties have participated. Slowly, the army’s role in the country’s government has been eliminated. The elected governments that came to power ordered inquiries into Pinochet’s rule. These inquiries showed that his government was not only very brutal, but also very corrupt. Do you remember a little reference made earlier to General Bachelet’s daughter who was imprisoned and tortured along with her mother? That girl, Michelle Bachelet (pronounced Mishel Bashelet), was elected President of Chile in January 2006. A medical doctor and a moderate socialist, Michelle became the first woman to be a Defence Minister in Latin America. In the presidential elections she defeated one of Chile’s richest men. In this photograph of her victory speech, she is saying to her supporters: â€Å"Because I was the victim of hatred, I have dedicated my life to reverse that hatred and turn it into understanding, tolerance and — why not say it — into love. † emocra cy Poland D emocra cy in Poland Let us turn to another event, this time from Poland, in 1980. At that time Poland was ruled by the Polish United Workers’ Party. This was one of the many communist parties that ruled in several countries of East Europe at that time. In these countries no other political party was allowed to function. The people could not freely choose the leaders of the communist party or the government. Those who spoke against the leaders or the party or the government were put in prison. The government in Poland was supported and controlled by the government of the Soviet Union (USSR), a vast and powerful communist state. On 14 August 1980, the workers of Lenin Shipyard in the city of Gdansk went on a strike. The shipyard was owned by the government. In fact all the factories and big property in Poland were owned by the government. The strike began with a demand to take back a crane operator, a woman worker, who was unjustly dismissed 5 EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD from service. This strike was illegal, because trade unions independent of the ruling party were not allowed in Poland. As the strike continued, a former electrician of the shipyard, Lech Walesa (pronounced Lek Walesha), joined the strikers. He was dismissed from service in 1976 for demanding higher pay. Walesa soon emerged as the leader of the striking workers. The strike began to spread across the whole city. Now the workers started raising larger demands. They wanted the right to form independent trade unions. They also demanded the release of political prisoners and an end to censorship on press. The movement became so popular that the government had to give in. The workers led by Walesa signed a 21-point agreement with the government that ended their strike. The government agreed to recognise the workers’ right to form independent trade unions and their right to strike. After the Gdansk agreement was signed, a new trade union called Solidarity (Solidarnosc in Polish) was formed. It was the first time an independent trade union was formed in any of the communist states. Within a year, Solidarity swept across Poland and had about one crore members. Revelations of widespread corruption and mismanagement in the government made matters worse for the rulers. The government, led by General Jaruzelski, grew anxious and imposed martial law in December 1981. Thousands of Solidarity members were put in prison. Freedom to organise, protest and express opinions was once again taken away. Another wave of strikes, again organised by Solidarity, began in 1988. This time the Polish 6 government was weaker, the support from Soviet Union uncertain and the economy was in decline. Another round of negotiations with Walesa resulted in an agreement in April 1989 for free elections. Solidarity contested all the 100 seats of the Senate and won 99 of them. In October 1990, Poland had its first presidential elections in which more than one party could contest. Walesa was elected President of Poland. A C T I V I T Y Locate Poland on the map. Write down the names of the countries that surround it. Which other East European countries were ruled by communist parties in the 1980s? Shade them on the map. Make a list of political activities that you could not have done in Poland in 1980s but you can do in our country. Fe atur tures Democr cy emocra Tw o Fe atures of Democra cy We have read two different kinds of real life stories. The story from Chile was of a democratic government led by Allende being replaced by a nondemocratic military government of Pinochet, followed by restoration of democracy. In Poland we tracked the transition from a non-democratic government to a democratic government. Let us compare the two nondemocratic governments in these stories. There were many differences between Pinochet’s rule in Chile and the communist rule in Poland. Chile was ruled by a military dictator, while Poland was ruled by a political party. The government of Poland claimed that it was ruling on behalf of the working classes. Pinochet made no such claim and openly favoured big capitalists. Yet both had some common features: EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS Why was an independent trade union so important in Poland? Why are trade unions necessary? The people could not choose or change their rulers. There was no real freedom to express one’s opinions, form political associations and organise protests and political action. The three democratic governments identified above — Allende’s Chile, Walesa’s Poland and Michelle’s Chile — are different in their approach towards social and economic matters. Allende preferred government control on all big industries and the economy. Walesa wanted the market to be free of government interference. Michelle stands somewhere in the middle on this issue. Yet these three governments shared some basic features. Power was exercised by governments elected by the people and not by the army, unelected leaders or any external power. The people enjoyed some basic political freedoms. From these two stories let us draw a rough way to identify a democracy. Democracy is a form of government that allows people to choose their rulers. In a democracy: only leaders elected by people should rule the country, and people have the freedom to express views, freedom to organise and freedom to protest. We shall come back to this question in Chapter Two and develop a definition of democracy. We shall also note some features of a democracy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Anita made a list of the features of all the five governments that we have discussed so far. But somehow the list got mixed up. Now she has a list of many features but she does not remember which feature applies to which government. Can you help her by writing the correct feature under the name of the government in the table below? Remember, some of these features may apply to more than one government and would need to be written separately under each of these. Features: Military dictatorship Widespread t he The president sm of Critici ent not corruption was once a m er govern political prison d Government allowe Ruler elected owned all Ruler not by the people industries More than o ne elected by the parties e xist people Missing people People enjoyed Foreign basic political inter venti s freedom on domestic a in ffairs Chile Allende Chile Pinochet Chile Bachelet Poland Jaruzelski Poland Walesa EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD 7 1. 2 THE CHANGING MAP Twentieth century was full of the kind of stories we have read above: stories of transition to democracy, of challenges to democracy, of military coups, of struggles of the people to bring back democracy. Was there a pattern to these stories that record both the march towards democracy and the setbacks to democracy? Let us use the basic features we noted earlier and identify democracies among different countries of the world. This is what the three maps shown here do. Take a look at these three maps below and find out if there was a pattern in the way democracies have evolved in the twentieth century. The first map depicts the countries OF EMOCRAC ACY DEMOCRACY that were democratic in 1950, a few years after the end of the Second World War. This map also shows countries from this set that had already become democratic by 1900. The second map presents a picture of democratic regimes in 1975, after most of the colonies had gained independence. Finally, we take another leap and look at democracies in the year 2000, at the beginning of the twenty-first century. As we look at these maps, let us ask ourselves some questions. How has democracy marched through the twentieth century? Is there a clear pattern of expansion? When did the expansion take place? In which regions? MAP 1. 1: DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS IN 1900-1950 DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN 1900 AND 1950 DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN 1950 BUT NOT IN 1900 8 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS MAP 1. 2: DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS IN 1975 DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN 1975 MAP 1. 3: DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS IN 2000 DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN 2000 Source: Historical data for these maps is taken from Polity IV Project dataset of Universtiy of Maryland. This dataset defines democracy as existence of choices about policies and leaders, checks on executive power and guarantee of civil liberties. Here we have used positive ‘Polity’ scores as indicating the existence of democracy. In some cases the scores of dataset have been modified. For details see http://www. cidcm. umd. edu EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD 9 On the basis of these maps identify up to three countries (in some cases you won’t find three countries) that were democratic in these continents for the given years and make a table as given below. Year 1950 1975 2000 Africa Asia Europe Latin America CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Identify some countries from map 1. 1 that became democratic between 1900 and 1950. Identify some countries from map 1. and 1. 2 that were democratic in 1950 and 1975. Identify some European countries from map 1. 2 and 1. 3 that were democratic in 1975 and 2000. Identify some countries in Latin America that became democratic after 1975. Make a list of big countries that were not democratic in 2000. Let us summarise the main points that emerge from a readi ng of these maps. You need to go back to the maps to answer the question that comes after each point. Democracy has expanded throughout the twentieth century. Is it correct to say that at each point in these maps, the number of democratic countries is larger than at the previous point in time? Democracy did not spread evenly in all parts of the world. It was established first in some regions and then spread to other regions. Which continents in the world had a large number of democracies in 1900 and 1950? And which continents did not have almost any? While a majority of countries are democratic today, there are still large parts of the world that are not democratic. Which regions in the world account for most of the countries that were not democracies in 2000? Looking at these maps, which period do you find most important in the expansion of democracy? Why? HASES XPANSI ANSIO 1. PHASES IN THE EXPANSION EMOCRAC ACY OF DEMOCRACY Beginning T he Beginning These maps do not tell us much about what happened before the twentieth century. The story of modern democracy began at least two centuries ago. You may have read the chapter on the French Revolution of 1789 in the history book of this course. This popular uprising did not establish a secure and stable democracy in France. Th roughout the nineteenth century, democracy in France was overthrown and restored several times. Yet the French Revolution inspired many struggles for democracy all over Europe. In Britain, the progress towards democracy started much before the French Revolution. But the progress was very slow. Through the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, series of political events reduced the power of monarchy and feudal lords. The right to vote was granted to more and more people. Around the same time as the French Revolution, the British colonies in North America declared themselves independent in 1776. In the next few years these colonies came together to form the United States of America. They adopted a democratic EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS 10 Why were women given voting rights much later than men in most countries? Why did this not happen in India? constitution in 1787. But here too the right to vote was limited to very few men. In the nineteenth century struggles for democracy often centred round political equality, freedom and justice. One major demand was the right for every adult citizen to vote. Many European countries that were becoming more democratic did not initially allow all people to vote. In some countries only people owning property had the right to vote. Often women did not have the right to vote. In the United States of America, the blacks all over the country could not exercise the right to vote until 1965. Those struggling for democracy wanted this right granted universally to all adults — men or women, rich or poor, white or black. This is called ‘universal adult franchise’ or ‘universal suffrage’. The box here tells us when universal suffrage was granted in many countries of the world. As you can see, by 1900 New Zealand was the only country where every adult had voting right. But if you go back to the map, you can see many other countries are marked as ‘democracies’ by the beginning of the twentieth century. These countries had by then governments elected by a significant number of people, mostly men, and had granted political freedom in some measure. Early democracies were established in Europe, North America and Latin America. Colonialism E nd of Colonialism When was universal adult franchise granted? 1893 1917 1918 1919 1928 1931 1934 1944 1945 1950 1951 1952 1955 1962 1965 1978 1994 New Zealand Russia Germany Netherlands Britain Sri Lanka Turkey France Japan India Argentina Greece Malaysia Australia US Spain South Africa Note: This is only an illustrative list from different parts of the world. The year indicates when the principle of one person one vote was fully realised in that country. The list does not include those cases where the right to vote was withdrawn later. For a very long time most countries in Asia and Africa were colonies under the control of European nations. People of the colonised countries had to wage struggles to achieve independence. They not only wanted to get rid of their colonial masters, but also wished to choose their future leaders. Our country was one of the few colonies where people carried a nationalist struggle to liberate the country from the colonial rule. Many of these countries became democracies immediately after the end of the Second World War in 1945. India achieved Independence in 1947 and embarked on its journey to transform itself from a subject country to a democracy. It continues to be a democracy. Most former colonies did not have such a good experience. The case of Ghana, a country in western Africa, illustrates the more common experience of former colonies. Ghana used to be a British colony named Gold Coast. It became independent in 1957. It was among the first countries in Africa to gain independence. It inspired other African countries to struggle for freedom. Kwame Nkrumah (pronounced Enkruma), son of a 11 EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD goldsmith and himself a teacher, was active in the independence struggle of his country. After independence, Nkrumah became the first prime minister and then the president of Ghana. He was a friend of Jawaharlal Nehru and an inspiration for democrats in Africa. But unlike Nehru, he got himself elected president for life. Soon after, in 1966, he was overthrown by the military. Like Ghana, most countries that became democracies after gaining independence had a mixed record. They could not remain democracies for long. A C T I V I T Y Locate Ghana in an atlas and then spot it in the three maps in the previous section. Was Ghana a democracy in 2000? Do you think it is good to elect someone President for life? Or is it better to hold regular elections after every few years? nt R e c e nt phase The next big push towards democracy came after 1980, as democracy was revived in several countries of Latin America. The disintegration of the Soviet Union accelerated this process. From the story of Poland we know that the then Soviet Union controlled many of its neighbouring communist countries in Eastern Europe. Poland and several other countries became free from the control of the Soviet Union during 1989-90. They chose to become democracies. Finally the Soviet Union itself broke down in 1991. The Soviet Union comprised 15 Republics. All the constituent Republics emerged as independent countries. Most of them became democracies. Thus the end of Soviet control on East Europe and the break up of the Soviet Union led to a big 12 change in the political map of the world. In this period major changes also took place in India’s neighbourhood. Pakistan and Bangladesh made a transition from army rule to democracy in 1990s. In Nepal, the king gave up many of his powers to become a constitutional monarch to be guided by elected leaders. However, these changes were not permanent. In 1999 General Musharraf brought back army rule in Pakistan. In 2005 the new king of Nepal dismissed the elected government and took back political freedoms that people had won in the previous decade. Yet the overall trend in this period points to more and more countries turning to democracy. This phase still continues. By 2005, about 140 countries were holding multi-party elections. This number was higher than ever before. More than 80 previously non-democratic countries have made significant advances towards democracy since 1980. But, even today, there are many countries where people cannot express their opinion freely. They Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Park in Accra, the capital of Ghana. This park was commissioned in 1992, twenty years after Nkrumah passed away. What might have caused this delay? EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS Dev Ley, Wikipedia, GNU Free Documentation License read the cartoon  ©Stephane Peray, Thailand, Cagle Cartoons Inc. This cartoon appeared in 2005 when Aung San Suu Kyi’s turned 60. What is the cartoonist saying here? Will the army rulers feel happy with this cartoon? What should be the policy of the government of India towards the military rulers of Myanmar? still cannot elect their leaders. They cannot take big decisions about their present and future life. One such country is Myanmar, previously known as Burma. It gained freedom from colonial rule in 1948 and became a democracy. But the democratic rule ended in 1962 with a military coup. In 1990 elections were held for the first time after almost 30 years. The National League for Democracy, led by Aung San Suu Kyi (pronounced Soo-chi), won the election. But the military leaders of Myanmar refused to step down and did not recognise the election results. Instead, the military put the elected pro-democracy leaders, including Suu Kyi, under house arrest. Political activists accused of even the most trivial offences have been jailed. Anyone caught publicly airing views or issuing statements critical of the regime can be sentenced up to twenty years in prison. Due to the coercive policies of the military-ruled EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY government in Myanmar, about 6 to 10 lakh people in that country have been uprooted from their homes and have taken shelter elsewhere. Despite being under house arrest, Suu Kyi continued to campaign for democracy. According to her: â€Å"The quest for democracy in Burma is the struggle of the people to live whole, meaningful lives as free and equal members of the world community. † Her struggle has won international recognition. She has also been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Yet the people in Myanmar are still struggling to establish a democratic government in their country. A C T I V I T Y Locate Myanmar on an atlas. Which Indian states border this country? Write a short essay on the life of Aung San Suu Kyi. Collect newspaper reports on the struggle for democracy in Myanmar. 13 IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD EMOCRAC ACY 1. 4 DEMOCRACY AT THE GLOBAL LE VEL? After reading about the various phases of expansion of democracy, a teacher, Mr. Singh, asked the students to summarise what they had learnt. This is how the conversation took place: Farida: We have learnt that democracy has been expanding to more and more regions and countries all over the world. Rajesh: Yes, we live in a better world than before. It seems we are moving towards a world democracy. Sushmita: World democracy! How can you say that? I saw a television programme that showed how the Americans invaded Iraq without any justification. The people of Iraq were not consulted at any stage. How can you call that a world democracy? Farida: I am not talking about the relationship between different countries. I am only saying that more and more countries are becoming democratic. Rajesh: But what is the difference between the two? If more and more countries become democratic, isn’t it obvious that the world also becomes more democratic? After all the Iraq war was all about taking democracy to that country. Sushmita: No, it is not obvious to me. Singh sir: I think we are talking about two very different things here. Farida spoke about establishment of democratic governments within different countries in the world today. Sushmita and Rajesh have differences over something else. Their difference is over the relationship among different countries. It is quite possible, Rajesh, that the rulers of a country who are democratically elected by their people may want to dominate over other countries. Sushmita: Yes sir. That is exactly what happened in the case of the war on Iraq. Surinder: I am confused. How can we talk about democracy at the global level? Is there any world government? Who is the president of the world? If there is no government, how can it be democratic or non-democratic? nt rn ational Organisations I nt e rn ational Organisations Let us respond to the question that came up in this conversation: Does an increase in the number of democratic countries all over the world automatically lead to democratic relations among countries? Before we do that, let us think about the point raised by Surinder. There is a government of India, a government of the United States of America, and so on. But there is no government of the world. No government can pass any law that will apply to all the people of the world. If there is no such government, if there are no rulers and ruled, how can we apply the two features of democracy here? These two features, you would recall, were that the rulers should be elected by the people and that people should have basic political freedoms. Should there be a world government? If yes, who should elect it? And, what powers should it have?  ©Angel Boligan, EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS Universal,Mexico, Cagle Cartoons Inc. This cartoon was published in Mexico in 2005 and was titled ‘International Games’. Which games is the cartoonist talking about here? What does the ball symbolize? Who are the players? 14 Should the permanent members of the UN be given the power to veto? While Surinder is right in a simple sense, we cannot say that the question of democracy does not arise here. There is no single World Government, but there are many institutions in the world that perform partially the functions of such a government. These organisations cannot command countries and citizens in a way a government can, but they do make rules that put limits on what governments can do. Consider these points: Who makes laws and rules to govern the seas that do not fall within the boundaries of any one country? Or who takes steps to control environmental degradation that threatens all the countries together. The United Nations (UN) has evolved many Conventions on these questions that are now binding on most countries of the world. The UN is a global association of nations of the world to help cooperation in international law, security, economic development and social equity. The UN Secretary General is its chief administrative officer. What happens when a country attacks another country in an unjust manner? The UN Security Council, an organ of the UN, is responsible for maintaining peace nd security among countries. It can put together an international army and take action against the wrongdoer. Who lends money to governments when they need it? The International Monetary Fund (IMF) does so. The World Bank also gives loans to the governments. Before lending they ask the concerned government to show all its accounts and direct it to make changes in its economic policy. EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY decisions A r e these decisions democra democra tic? So, there are many institutions at the world level that perform some of the functions that a world government would perform. But we need to know just how democratic these organisations are. The yardstick here is whether each of the countries has free and equal say in the decisions that affect them. In this light let us examine the organisation of some of these world bodies. Everyone of the 192 member countries of the UN has one vote in the UN General Assembly. It meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the representatives of the member countries. General Assembly is like the parliament where all the discussion takes place. In that sense the UN would appear to be a very democratic organisation. But the General Assembly cannot take any decision about what action should be taken in a conflict between different countries. The fifteen-member Security Council of the UN takes such crucial decisions. The Council has five permanent members – US, Russia, UK, France and China. Ten other members are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. The real power is with five permanent members. The permanent members, especially the US, contribute most of the money needed for the maintenance of the UN. Each permanent member has veto power. It means that the Council cannot take a decision if any permanent member says no to that decision. This system has led more and more people and countries to protect and demand that the UN becomes more democratic. 15 IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD International Monetary Fund (IMF) is one of the biggest moneylenders for any country in the world. Its 173 member states do not have equal voting rights. The vote of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF. Nearly half of the voting power in the IMF is in the hands of only seven countries (US, Japan, France, UK, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia). The remaining 166 countries have very little say in how these international organisations take decisions. The World Bank has a similar system of voting. The President of the World Bank has always been a citizen of the US, conventionally nominated by the Treasury Secretary (Finance Minister) of the US government. A C T I V I T Y Find out more about the history and various organs of the United Nations. Collect any news about the decisions of the World Bank and the IMF. Compare these to the kind of democratic practices that we have been discussing in this chapter. What would you say about a country where some persons have a permanent position in the ministry and have the power to stop the decision of the entire parliament? Or a parliament where five per cent of the members hold a majority of votes? Would you call these democratic? Most of the global institutions fail to pass the simple test of democracy that we use for national governments. If global institutions are not democratic, are they at least becoming more democratic than before? Here too the evidence is not very encouraging. In fact, while 16 nations are becoming more democratic than they were earlier, international organisations are becoming less democratic. Twenty years ago there were two big powers in the world: the US and the Soviet Union. The competition and conflict between these two big powers and their allies kept a certain balance in all the global organisations. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the US appears to be the only superpower in the world. This American dominance affects the working of international organisations. This is not to say that there is no urge or move towards global democracy. The urge comes from people who get more opportunities to come in touch with one another. Over the last few years the people of different countries have come together without their governments’ support. They have formed global organisations against war and against domination of the world by a few countries and business companies. As in the case of democracy within the nations, the initiative for democracy among nations has come from the struggles of the people. Wolfowitz was a senior official in the Department of Defence in the US (commonly called Pentagon). He was an aggressive supporter of the invasion of Iraq. The cartoon comments on his appointment as the President of the World Bank. What does the cartoon tell us about the relationship between the World Bank and the US? ead the cartoon  ©Patrick Chappatte, International Herald Tribune, Cagle Cartoons Inc. EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Here are some suggestions to strengthen world democracy. Do you support these changes? Are these changes likely to happen? Give your reasons for each of these. More nations should become permanent members of the Security Council. UN General Assembly should become like a world parliament with representatives from each country in proportion to the population of the country. These representatives should elect a world government. Individual countries should not have armies. The UN should maintain task forces to bring about peace in case of conflict between nations. A UN President should be elected directly by all the people of the world. D emocra cy promotion emocra cy The cartoon â€Å"Cactus of Democracy† was published in 2004. What does the cactus look like here? Who is gifting it, and to whom? What is the message? read the cartoon  ©Stephane Peray, Thailand, Cagle Cartoons Inc. Take a close look at the two cartoons on this and on the next page. These cartoons raise a fundamental question related to global democracy. Recently, many powerful countries in the world, particularly the United States of America, have taken on the task of democracy promotion in the rest of the world. They say that propagating the values of democracy is not enough. Existing democracies should directly intervene in countries that are non-democratic to establish democracy there. In some cases powerful countries have launched armed attack on nondemocratic countries. This is what Sushmita was talking about. Let us see what happened in Iraq. Iraq is a country in Western Asia. It became independent from British ule in 1932. Three decades later there were a series of coups by military officers. Since 1968, it was ruled by Arab Socialist Ba’th Party (the Arabic word Ba’th means renaissance). Saddam Hussein, a leading Ba’th party leader, played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to power. This government abolished traditional Islamic law and gave women the right to vote and several freedoms no t granted in other west Asian countries. After becoming the president of Iraq in 1979, Saddam ran a dictatorial government and suppressed any dissent or opposition to his rule. He was known to have got a number of political opponents killed and persons of ethnic minorities massacred. The US and its allies like Britain, alleged that Iraq possessed secret nuclear weapons and other ‘weapons of mass destruction’ which posed a big threat to the world. But when a UN team went to Iraq to search for such weapons, it did not find any. Still the US and its allies invaded Iraq, occupied it and removed Saddam Hussein from power in 2003. The US installed an interim government of its preference. The war against Iraq was not authorised by the UN Security Council. Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General, said that the US war on Iraq was illegal. EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD 17 A C T I V I T Y Collect information on the debate related to Iraq within the US and the UK. What were the reasons originally offered for the Iraq invasion by the President of US and the Prime Minister of UK? What were the reasons offered after the war? read the cartoon ‘Helping Democracy’ was a comment on the presence of US forces during the elections in Iraq. Do you think the cartoon can apply to many other situations? Identify some examples from this chapter which this cartoon can help understand. 8 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS  ©Ares, Caglecartoons. com, Cagle Cartoons Inc. The example of Iraq raises some basic questions that we need to think about: Is this the right way to promote democracy? Should a democratic country wage a war and invade other countries for establishing democracy there? Does external help work in every case? Or does it work only when the people of a nation are actively engaged in a struggle to make their societies democratic? Even if external intervention leads to the establishment of democracy in a country, would it last long? Would it enjoy the support of its citizens? Finally, is the use of external force to gift democracy to the people in keeping with the spirit of democracy? Think about these questions in the light of all that you have learnt in this chapter. GLOSSARY Censorship: A condition under which the freedom of expression is taken away. Citizens have to take prior permission from the censor authorities of the government for making a speech or publishing news and views. Anything that the government finds objectionable cannot be published. Coalition: An alliance of people, associations, parties or nations. This alliance may be temporary or a matter of convenience. Colony: Territory under the immediate political control of another state. Communist state: A state governed by a communist party without allowing other parties to compete for power. The state controls all the big property and industry. Coup: A coup d’etat (pronounced ku de’ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government illegally. It may or may not be violent in nature. The term is French for ‘a sudden blow or strike to a state’. Martial law: A system of rules that takes effect when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. Political prisoners: Persons held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because a government considers their ideas, image or activities as a threat to the authority of the state. Often exaggerated or false cases are foisted on them and they are kept in detention without following normal law. Referendum: A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be adoption of a new constitution, a law or a specific governmental policy. Strike: Mass refusal by workers or employees to perform work due to certain grievances or because of demands not met. In most democratic countries the right to strike is legal. Trade Union: An association of workers for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. Veto: The right of a person, party or nation to stop a certain decision or law. The word comes from Latin, which means ‘I forbid’. A veto gives unlimited power to stop a decision, but not to adopt one. exercises 1 Which of the following does not lead to the spread of democracy? a Struggle by the people b Invasion by foreign countries c End of colonialism d People’s desire for freedom Which of the following statement is true about today’s world? Monarchy as a form of government has vanished . b The relationship between different countries has become more democratic than ever before. c In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people. d There are no more military dictators in the world. NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD 2 EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE 19 3 Use one of the following statements to complete the sentence: Democracy in the international organisations requires that †¦ a The rich countries should have a greater say. b Countries should have a say according to their military power. c Countries should be treated with respect in proportion to their population. All countries in the world should be treated equally. Based on the information given in this chapter, match the following countries and the path democracy has taken in that country. COUNTRY PATH TO DEMOCRACY 4 a b c d 5 Chile Nepal Poland Ghana i ii iii iv Freedom from British colonial rule End of military dictatorship End of one party rule King agreed to give up his powers What are the difficulties people face in a non-democratic country? Give answers drawing from the examples given in this chapter. Which freedoms are ususally taken away when a democracy is overthrown by the military? 6 7 Which of the following positions can contribute to democracy at the global level? Give reasons for your answer in each case. a My country gives more money to international institutions. Therefore, I want to be treated with more respect and exercise more power. b My country may be small or poor. But my voice must be heard with equal respect, because these decisions will affect my country. c Wealthy nations will have a greater say in international affairs. They cannot let their interests suffer just because they are outnumbered by poor nations. d Big countries like India must have a greater say in international organisations. Here are three opinions heard in a television debate on the struggle for democracy in Nepal. Which of these do you agree with and why? Guest 1: India is a democracy. Therefore, the Indian government must support the people of Nepal who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy. Guest 2: That is a dangerous argument. We would be in the same position as the US was in Iraq. Remember, no outside force can promote democracy. Guest 3: But why should we bother about the internal affairs of another country? We should be worried about our business interests there, not about democracy. 8 20 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS xercises exercises 9 In an imaginary country called Happyland, the people overthrew the foreign ruler and brought back the old royal family. They said: â€Å"After all their ancestors were our kings before foreigners started ruling us. It is good that we have one strong ruler, who can help us become rich and powerful†. When someone talked about democracy the wise men said it is a foreign idea. Their struggle was to throw the foreigners and their ideas out of the country. When someone demanded freedom for the media, the elders thought that too much criticism of the ruler would not help them improve their living standards. After all, the king is so kind and interested in the welfare of all the subjects. Why create problems for him. Don’t we all want to be happy? † After reading the above passage, Chaman, Champa and Chandru made the following observations: Chaman: Happyland is a democratic country because people were able to throw out the foreign rulers and bring back the king. Champa: Happyland is not a democratic country because people cannot criticise the ruler. The king may be nice and may provide economic prosperity, but a king cannot give a democratic rule. Chandru: What people need is happiness. So they are willing to allow their new ruler to take decisions for them. If people are happy it must be a democracy. What is your opinion about each of these statements? What do you think about the form of government in this country? Form different groups in your class and collect different types of information (news clippings, articles, photographs, cartoons, etc. ) about struggles for democracy in any country that is currently not democratic. Focus on the following questions: What makes the government non-democratic? What are the main complaints and demands of the people in that country? How do the existing rulers react to people’s demands? Who are the main leaders of the struggle for democracy? You could present the information thus collected in various forms: an exhibition, a collage, a report or a wallpaper. EMOCRAC ACY D EMOCRACY IN THE NTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY WORLD 21 CHAPTER 2 What is Democracy? Why Democracy? OVERVIEW VERVIE VIEW The stories and the analysis in the previous chapter gave us a sense of what democracy is like. There we described some governments as democratic and some as non-democratic. We saw how governments in some of those countries changed from one form to the other. Let us now draw general lessons from those stories and ask the more basic question: What is democracy? What are its features? This chapter builds on a simple definition of democracy. Step by step, we work out the meaning of the terms involved in this definition. The aim here is to understand clearly the bare minimum features of a democratic form of government. After going through this chapter we should be able to distinguish a democratic form of government from a non-democratic government. Towards the end of this chapter, we step beyond this minimal objective and introduce a broader idea of democracy. In the previous chapter, we have seen that democracy is the most prevalent form of government in the world today and it is expanding to more countries. But why is it so? What makes it better than other forms of government? That is the second big question that we take up in this chapter. 22 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS HAT 2. 1 W HAT IS EMOCRAC ACY DEMOCRACY? distinguishes these governments from Pinochet’s rule in Chile, communist rule in Poland or the later period of Nkrumah’s rule in Ghana? What do these governments have in common with the military rule in Myanmar? Why do we say that these governments are not democratic? On the basis of this analysis, write down some common features of: Democratic governments Non-democratic governments In Chapter One we read many stories from different parts of the world. Through these stories we discussed various governments and organisations. We called some of these democracies. Others were described as non-democracies. Can you recall, for each of these countries, something about the governments that were described as democracies? Chile, before and after Pinochet’s rule Poland, after the fall of communist rule Ghana, in the early period of Nkrumah’s government What do you think is common to them? Why do we club them all under the label of democracy? What is it that define democra cy W h y define democra cy ? Before we proceed further, let us first take note of an objection by Merry. She does not like this way of defining democracy and wants to ask some basic questions. News items like this appear very often in newspapers. Do they all use the word democracy in the same sense? HAT W HAT IS EMOCRAC ACY EMOCRAC ACY DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? 23 Her teacher Matilda Lyngdoh responds to her questions, as other classmates join the discussion: Merry: Ma’am, I don’t like this idea. First we spend one whole chapter discussing democracies in different parts of the world and then we want to find out the meaning of democracy. I mean logically shouldn’t we have approached it the other way round? Shouldn’t the meaning have come first and then the example? Lyngdoh Madam: I can see your point. But that is not how we reason in everyday life. We use words like pen, rain or love. Do we wait to have a definition of these words before we use them? Come to think of it, do we have clear definition of these words? It is only by using a word that we understand its meaning. Merry: But then why do we need definitions at all? Lyngdoh Madam: We need a definition only when we come across a difficulty in the use of a word. We need a definition of rain only when we wish to distinguish it from, say, drizzle or cloudburst. The same is true for democracy. We need a clear definition only because people use it for different purposes, because very different kinds of governments call themselves democracy. Ribiang: But why do we need to work on a definition? The other day you quoted Abraham Lincoln to us: â€Å"Democracy is a rule of the people, for the people and by the people†. We in Meghalaya always ruled ourselves. That is accepted by everyone. Why do we need to change that? Lyngdoh Madam: I am not saying we need to change it. I too find this definition very beautiful. But we don’t know if this is the best way of defining unless we think about it ourselves. We must not accept something just because it is famous, just because everyone accepts it. Yolanda: Ma’am, can I suggest something? We don’t need to look for any definition. I read somewhere that the word democracy comes from a Greek word ‘Demokratia’. In Greek ‘demos’ means people and ‘kratia’ means rule. So democracy is rule by the people. This is the correct meaning. Where is the need to debate? Lyngdoh Madam: That is also a very helpful way of thinking about this matter. I would just say that this does not always work. A word does 24 not remain tied to its origin. Just think of computers. Originally they were used for computing, that is to say calculating, very difficult mathematical sums. These were very powerful calculators. But nowadays very few people use computers for computing sums. They use it for writing, for designing, for listening to music and for watching films. Words remain the same but their meaning can change with time. In that case it is not very useful to look at the origins of a word. Merry: Ma’am, so basically what you are saying is that there is no shortcut to our thinking about the matter ourselves. We have to think about its meaning and evolve a definition. Lyngdoh Madam: You got me right. Let us get on with it now. A C T I V I T Y Let us take Lyngdoh Madam seriously and try to write down the exact definition of some of the simple words that we use all the time: pen, rain and love. For example, is there a way of defining a pen that distinguishes it clearly from a pencil, a brush, a highlighter or a marker? What have you learnt from this attempt? What does it teach us about understanding the meaning of democracy? I have heard a different version. Democracy is off the people, far (from) the people and (where they) buy the people. Why don’t we accept that? definition A simple definition Let us get back to our discussion on similarities and differences among governments that are called democracies. In the last chapter we identified one simple factor common to all democracies: the government is chosen by the people. We could thus start with a simple definition: democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. This is a useful starting point. This definition allows us to separate democracy from forms of government that are clearly not democratic. The army rulers of Myanmar are not elected by the people. Those who happen to be in control of the army EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS become the rulers of the country. People have no say in this decision. Dictators like Pinochet are not elected by the people. This also applies to monarchies. The king of Nepal and Saudi Arabia rule not because the people have chosen them to do so but because they happen to be born into the royal family. This simple definition is not adequate. It reminds us that democracy is people’s rule. But if we use this definition in an unthinking manner, we would end up calling almost every government that holds an election a democracy. That would be very misleading. As we noted in Chapter Four, every government in contemporary world wants to be called a democracy, even if it is not so. That is why we need to carefully distinguish between a government that is a democracy and one that pretends to be one. We can do so by understanding each word in this definition carefully and spelling out the features of a democratic government. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Ribiang went back home and collected some more famous quotations on democracy. This time she did not mention the names of the people who said or wrote these. She wants you to read these and comment on how good or useful these thoughts are: Democracy gives every man the right to be his own oppressor. Democracy consists of choosing your dictators after they’ve told you what you think it is you want to hear. Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible, but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary Democracy is a device that insures we shall be governed no better than we deserve. All the ills of democracy can be cured by more democracy. read the cartoon This cartoon was drawn when elections were held in Iraq with the presence of US and other foreign powers. What do you think this cartoon is saying? Why is ‘democracy’ written the way it is?  ©Stephane Peray, Thailand, Cagle Cartoons Inc. HAT W HAT IS EMOCRAC ACY EMOCRAC ACY DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? 25 EATURES 2. 2 FEATURES EMOCRAC ACY OF DEMOCRACY want in a democracy? Or must a democratic government function with some limits? Is it necessary for a democracy to respect some rights of the citizens? Let us consider each of these questions with the help of some examples. We have started with a simple definition that democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. This raises many questions: Who are the rulers in this definition? Which officials must be elected for any government to be called a democracy? Which decisions may be taken by nonelected officials in a democracy? What kind of election constitutes a democratic election? What conditions must be fulfilled for an election to be considered democratic? Who are the people who can elect the rulers or get elected as rulers? Should this include every citizen on an equal basis? Can a democracy deny some citizens this right? Finally, what kind of a form of government is democracy? Can elected rulers do whatever they M ajor decisions by elec t e d decisions by elec leaders In Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf led a miliary coup in October 1999. He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the ‘Chief Executive’ of the country. Later he changed his designation to President and in 2002 held a referendum in the country that granted him a fiveyear extension. Pakistani media, human right organisations and democracy activists said that the referendum was based on ead the cartoon Syria is a small west Asian country. The ruling Baath Party and some of its small allies are the only parties allowed in that country. Do you think this cartoon could apply to China or Mexico? What does the crown of leaves on democracy signify? 26 EMOCRATIC LITICS D EMOCRATIC POLITICS  ©Emad Hajjaj, Jordan, Cagle Cartoons Inc. read the cartoon  ©Are s, Caglecartoon. com, Cagle Cartoons Inc. This cartoon was drawn in the context of Latin America. Do you think it applies to the Pakistani situation as well? Think of other countries where this could apply? Does this happen sometimes in our country as well? rulers. They cannot take the final decisions. The power to take final decision rests with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them are elected by the people. This happens in many dictatorships and monarchies. They formally have an elected parliament and government but the real power is with those who are not elected. In the last chapter we read about the role of USSR in communist Poland and that of US in contemporary Iraq. Here the real power was with some external powers and not with locally elected representatives. This cannot be called people’s rule. This gives us the first feature. In a democracy the final decision making power must rest with those elected by the people. malpractices and fraud. In August 2002 he issued a ‘Legal Framework Order’ that amended the constitution of Pakistan. According to this Order, the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies. The work of the civilian cabinet is supervised by a National Security Council which is dominated by military officers. After passing this law, elections were held to the national and state assemblies. So Pakistan has had elections, elected representatives have some powers. But the final power rests with military officers and General Musharraf himself. Clearly, there are many reasons why Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy. But let us focus on one of these. Can we say that the rulers are elected by the people in Pakistan? Not quite. People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really the HAT W HAT EMOCRAC ACY EMOCRAC ACY DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? elec ra F ree and fair elec t o ra l c ompetition In China, elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the country’s parliament, called Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (National People’s Congress). The National People’s Congress has the power to appoint the President of the country. It has nearly 3,000 members elected from all over China. Some members are elected by the army. Before contesting elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party. Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest elections held in 2002-03. The government is always formed by the Communist Party. Since its independence in 1930, Mexico holds elections after every six years to elect its President. The country has never been under a military or dictator’s rule. But until 2000 every election was won by a 27 All this is so remote for me. Is democracy all about rulers and governments? Can we talk about a democratic classroom? Or a democratic family? IS party called PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party). Opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed to win. The PRI was known to use many dirty tricks to win elections. All those who were employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings. Teachers of government schools used to force parents to vote for the PRI. Media largely ignored the activities of opposition political parties except to criticise them. Sometimes the polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the last minute, which made it difficult for people to cast their votes. The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates. Should we consider the elections described above as examples of people electing their rulers? Reading these examples we get a sense that we cannot. There are many problems here. In China the elections do not offer the people any serious choice. They have to choose the ruling party and the candidates approved by it. Can we call this How to cite Class X – Democratic Politics Book, Essay examples

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Thesis Paper on Nitol Motors Limited Essay Essay Example

Thesis Paper on Nitol Motors Limited Essay Essay Performance assessment is a method by which the occupation public presentation of an employee is evaluated ( by and large in footings of quality. measure. cost. and clip ) typically by the corresponding director or supervisor [ 2 ] . A public presentation assessment is a portion of guiding and pull offing calling. It is the procedure of obtaining. analysing. and entering information about the comparative worth of an employee to the organisation. Performance assessment is an analysis of an employee’s recent successes and failures. personal strengths and failings. and suitableness for publicity or farther preparation. It is besides the judgement of an employee’s public presentation in a occupation based on considerations other than productiveness entirely. We will write a custom essay sample on Thesis Paper on Nitol Motors Limited Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Thesis Paper on Nitol Motors Limited Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Thesis Paper on Nitol Motors Limited Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The section of interior’s public presentation direction policy is designed to document the outlooks of single and organisational public presentation. supply a meaningful procedure by which employee can be rewarded for notable parts to the organisation. and supply a mechanism to better individual/organizational public presentation as necessary. To accomplish this aims director need to place the organisational ends to be accomplished. pass on single and organisational ends to employees that support the overall strategic mission and authorities public presentation and consequence act. ends of the section. proctor and measure employees public presentation and usage public presentation as a footing of appropriate personal action including honoring notable public presentation and taking action to better less than successful public presentation. Nitol Motors Ltd. is the exclusive distributer of TATA vehicles in Bangladesh. Nitol Motors Ltd. ( Service ) is subordinate organ of Nitol Motors Ltd. The care and guarantee of TATA vehicle is given by Nitol Motors Ltd. ( Service ) division. To supply proper care with equal client satisfaction the employees of Nitol Motors Ltd. ( Service ) should posses required Knowledge. Skill and Ability to execute their occupation. Employees need to upgrade their public presentation to run into betterment in engineering and resources. 1. 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. 2. 1Vague Appraisal System Right now in Nitol Motors Ltd ( Service ) there is no standard system for public presentation assessment. Key questionnaire and Key Performance Factor are non sufficiently expressed. The Scenario how can be worse if a floor degree simply educated machinist have to confront questionnaire like: â€Å"What milestone accomplishment you covered in strategic concern degree or in educational making during last twelvemonth? † 1. 2. 2 Inapt Frequency of Appraisal Merely one time in a twelvemonth public presentation assessment is done. The most obnoxious sphere has been identified as the organisation continue engaging and enrolling people through out the twelvemonth. but the employee who join the organisation in some uneven section of the fiscal twelvemonth ; even miss the assessment. 1. 2. 3 As the Precedence like the Appraisal From the study within the organisation. grounds against the stating As Precedence like the assessment has proved non to be merely a stating instead a fact. However the assessment system is at that place. are incorporated by unwritten â€Å"adjustment of salary† or similar typical fact. 1. 2. 4 Need for the defined Job duty and structured Organ gm: As there is deficiency of sufficient employee against the place bing. Peoples have to play multi function in instances. This becomes a terrible expostulation when he can’t keep the proper precedence sequence of duties. Another interesting thing we observed that Persons holding the same organisational appellation are basking better periphery benefits and high quality probably for the instances of Service Executives. 1. 2. 5 Non conformance of evaluation country and public presentation country Harmonizing to the bing assessment system. the evaluation is simply done on the precisely what was intended from the forces. Even in some instances the evaluation is done on random standards what indicates that the ever busy individual can be busy in making nil for his twelvemonth terminal assessment 1. 3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY The aims of this survey are to analyse the present state of affairs of the employees of Nitol Motors Ltd ( service ) and suggest a theoretical account for Performance assessment for the company so that in can run more expeditiously and efficaciously. As Drumhead: 1. 3. 1 Major Aim The chief aim of the survey is to suggest a balanced assessment system in running the organisation more expeditiously and with better employee satisfaction. 1. 4 There is batch of restrictions of this survey. Some are †¢There is no standard theoretical account for public presentation assessment system †¢Normally public presentation assessment are done in senior status footing †¢No proper guideline for occupation duty. †¢Absence of Human Resource Executive in Service Division. †¢Lack of Manpower in Human resource Department. Chapter II OVERVIEW OF NITOL MOTORS LIMITED ( SERVICE ) 2. 1 Background A dynamic immature adult male Abdul Matlub Ahmad founded Nitol Motors Ltd. In 1983. Very shortly the new company became a major participant in the commercial vehicle market and has been turning of all time since. With the slogan of quality. honestness and efficiency the company in its beginning started with trading of vehicles. Its high gross revenues figure attracted international companies and in 1989 Nitol Motors Ltd. became the exclusive distributer of TATA vehicles in Bangladesh. In 1991 a joint venture company named Nita Company Ltd. was formed between TELCO and NITOL for assembly of TATA vehicles in Bangladesh. From a trading company in early 1880ss. Nitol-Niloy Group has literally become a family name in less than twenty old ages. Over the old ages. it has expanded its activities into different sectors in order to guarantee excellence in service to the clients. Because of its uninterrupted variegation. it has shaped itself as a true pudding stone from its original individuality as a conveyance based organisation. This was the dream of Mr. Abdul Matlub Ahmad. which he had in his pupil yearss in Oxford. With strong support of dedicated direction squad. he made his dream come true. But like he says â€Å"This is merely the beginning of good times. best is yet to come† . The chief push of Nitol-Niloy Group comes from. selling TATA trade name of commercial vehicles in Bangladesh including Buses. trucks. rider version pickup trucks. Maxi and building equipment. Since 1991. it commenced assembly and constructing organic structure of TATA vehicles. popular in the state for its economic system and first-class value for money. alone pay-as you-earn selling system and complete after gross revenues service. Nitol-Niloy Group has a strong. diversified profile in Bangladesh. it has opted for merchandising collection of vehicles. coach organic structure devising. after gross revenues support. conveyance and air power services. fiscal establishments. fabrication industries. existent province including edifice of satellite townships. belongingss development and athleticss publicity. The group one-year turnover is estimated to traverse taka 500 crores. New endeavors are being implemented. Nitol-Niloy Group is looking at a new skyline of come-at-able dreams. For Nitol-Niloy Group. sky is the bound. Nitol Motors Ltd. is the exclusive distributer of TATA vehicles in Bangladesh. Nitol Motors Ltd. ( Service ) is subordinate organ of Nitol Motors Ltd. The care and guarantee of TATA vehicle is given by Nitol Motors Ltd. ( Service ) division. Nitol Motors Ltd. ( Service ) is supplying care service to valued proprietors of TATA vehicles in Bangladesh. There are 10 service Stationss entirely ain by NML ( Service ) and 25 Authorized Service Centre all over Bangladesh to back up the vehicle proprietors. The figure is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. as the sale of the vehicle besides increasing. At present 75 % of market portion of commercial vehicle is owned by TATA vehicles. Thus it is really indispensable to supply equal support this of all time increasing figure of clients. at quickest possible clip with their satisfaction. Tough the company started its journey in the twelvemonth 1983. it become exclusive distributed of TATA vehicle in 1991. To back up the proprietor of TATA Vehicles the company has implemented the pattern of 3S system. a ) Sale. B ) Service and degree Celsius ) Spare. Since the company is importing the vehicles from parent company. TATA Motors Ltd. . it is bounded by the policies service fix as per recommendation of TATA motors Ltd. The commercial vehicles ply in different part of Bangladesh. There is no sure of manner stating when a vehicle will serve fix. Service fix may be required any where in the state. Maintenance is necessary when of all time there is a dislocation of the vehicle. Thus it is indispensable for the client to acquire available service at quickest possible clip. For the client the slogan is Time is Money. For proper service of the vehicles it is besides indispensable for the company to hold adequate accomplishment manpower to work out job on the route and in the workshop premises. The proper designation of the job and proper guidelines to maintenance can decide a batch of issues and avoid more major job from happening. 2. 2 Mission Helping Bangladesh to develop as a existent comfortable. ego dependent proud state by get the better ofing the dependence on imported foreign goods through industrialisation. 2. 3 Organizational Structure Nitol Niloy Group follows the Functional Organization theoretical account whereby each division. headed by a Executive Director with important educational and industry experience. focuses on its alone functional aims. Due to the context of the thesis on the subdivision of Nitol Motors Limited and its service division is highlighted. 2. 4 Service web ( workshop location ) The web of service ( workshop ) includes the CSD Workshops. Authorized Workshop and Nitol Shubidha Workshop. At Present Nitol Motors ( Service ) is supplying their installations through 10 CSD Workshop. 13 ASC Workshop and 1 Nitol Shubidha Workshop. The face book of Nitol Motors Service is their CSD Workshops.